亚博电竞

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邱水平:对新时代中国高等教育内涵式发展的几点思考

[摘 要]坚持高等教育内涵式发展,应在把握高等教育时代使命的基础上,从价值、目标、动力、路径、精神、资源六个维度全方位推进,科学定位高等教育价值理念和目标,通过构建动力机制、优化结构路径、培育大学精神、强化资源保障,形成以质量提升为核心、办学规模与质量协调推进的发展道路。

[关键词]高等教育内涵式发展;办学规模;“双一流”建设

dangdeshibadabaogaozhongtichu“tuidonggaodengjiaoyuneihanshifazhan”,dangdeshijiudabaogaozhongqiangdiao“shixiangaodengjiaoyuneihanshifazhan”,2018nian5yue,xijinpingzongshujizaiyabodianjingkaochashizaicishenkezhichu,“dangqianwoguogaodengjiaoyubanxueguimohenianbiyerenshuyijushijieshouwei,danguimokuozhangbingbuyiweizhezhilianghexiaoyizengzhang,zouneihanshifazhandaolushiwoguogaodengjiaoyufazhandebiyouzhilu。”gaodengjiaoyuneihanshifazhanshiyixijinpingtongzhiweihexindedangzhongyangzhanzaizhanlvequanjugaodutichudeyigezhongdaketi,shizhongguoteseshehuizhuyijinruxinshidai,shehuizhuyaomaodunzhuanbianduigaodengjiaoyutichudebiranyaoqiu,yeshizhongguogaodengjiaoyushixianquanmian、xiediao、kechixufazhandeneizaixuyao。

亚博电竞“neihanshifazhan”shiyizhongfazhanlinian,daiyouhennonghoudezhexueyiwei,shanyaozhebianzhengweiwuzhuyi、lishiweiwuzhuyideguangmang,youshijutide、xianshidefazhanzhanlve,bixuluoshiluodi,zhuanhuaweigaoxiaogongzuodedongli、siluhebanfa。miandui“bainianweiyouzhidabianju”,zai“shisiwu”guihuamoupianbujuzhiji,womenyingduiciyouxindesikaoyutansuo。

“高等教育内涵式发展”的历史脉络

“neihanshifazhan”zuoweiyizhongfazhanlinian,shiyigezhexuegainian,yunyongzaizhongguogaodengjiaoyufazhandejutichangjingzhong,youtixianweijutide、xianshidefazhanzhanlve,zaibutongshiqiyoutedingdeneihanhezhixiang。

gaigekaifangchuqi,weilepeiyanggaojizhuanmenrencaihefazhankexuejishuwenhua,xuduodifangfenfenbandaxue,gaoxiaoshuliangxunsuzengjia,danzheiyishiqi,gaoxiaoxueshengguimozengzhanghuanman、bingweixianzhukuoda,gaoxiaoshengjunguimojiaoxiao、guimoxiaoyiyeyoudaitigao。

图1 1978—1989年高校及学生规模(数据来源:国家统计局网站)

weilejinyibucujingaodengjiaoyudefazhan,zi20shiji80niandaimoqiqi,woguogaodengjiaoyuzhubuxingchengleyi“neihanshifazhan”weizhudegaigesilu。1993nianfabude《guanyujiakuaigaigehejijifazhanputonggaodengjiaoyudeyijian》zhongmingquetichu“gaodengjiaoyudefazhan,yaojianchizouneihanfazhanweizhudedaolu”。cishi,neihanfazhandeshouyaomubiaoshi“shixianyouxuexiaodadaohelidebanxueguimo”,tongguokongzhigaoxiaoshuliang、kuodaxueshengguimodefangshi,shigaoxiao“guimoxiaoyiyingyoumingxiantigao”。20shiji90niandai,woguogaoxiaoshuliangbaochijibenwending、qieqijianyousuojianshao;ergaoxiaobanxueguimoxianzhukuoda,jiaoyubuzhishuzhongdiandaxuedexiaoshengjunguimoyidawanren,bingchuxianleyixiejiwanrendejuxingdaxue。

zheiyishiqide“neihanshifazhan”xianzhutishenglegaoxiaodeguimoxiaoyi,dansuizhexueshengguimobuduankuoda,gaoxiaodebanxueziyuanquanmianjinzhang。duici,youxuezhejianyi,zhongguogaodengjiaoyuyingcong“neihanshifazhan”zhuanbianwei“neihanshifazhanyuwaiyanshifazhanbingzhong,yiwaiyanshifazhanweizhu”。jinruxinshijiyihou,woguogaoxiaodeshuliangxunsukuoda,xueshengguimoyebaochijiaogaozengzhang,shiwoguozaijiaoduandeshijianneiwanchenglegaodengjiaoyudazhonghuadejincheng,muqianyijinrugaodengjiaoyupujihuajieduan。

亚博电竞suizhegaodengjiaoyuguimodexunsukuozhang,《guojiazhongzhangqijiaoyugaigehefazhanguihuagangyao(2010—2020nian)》tichu“zhuzhongjiaoyuneihanfazhan”。dangdeshibadabaogaomingqueyaoqiu“tuidonggaodengjiaoyuneihanshifazhan”。cihou,jiaoyubutongguo《guanyuquanmiantigaogaodengjiaoyuzhiliangderuoganyijian》《guojiajiaoyushiyefazhan“shisanwu”guihua》dengwenjianjinyibuluoshi。

图2 1990年代普通高等学校(含独立学院)数量(数据来源:国家统计局网站)

图3 中国高等教育规模变化(1999—2019)(数据来源:历年全国教育事业发展统计公报)

jinruzhongguoteseshehuizhuyixinshidai,jianchineihanshifazhanyijingchengweigaodengjiaoyudejibenfangzhen。dangdeshijiudabaogaozhongzaiciqiangdiao,yao“shixiangaodengjiaoyuneihanshifazhan”,xijinpingzongshujiyeduocijiucizuochuzhongyaolunshu。jintiandezhongguogaodengjiaoyuzaizhengtiguimohexiaojunguimoshangshixianlezhidefeiyue,zaixindeshidaitiaojianxia,“neihanshifazhan”buzaishizhuiqiuchuantongde“guimoxiaoyi”,ershijuyougengjiafengfudeneihan。yaolijiexinshidaizhongguogaodengjiaoyudeneihanshifazhan,jiuyaozaibawoguojiafazhanxindelishifangwei、jianchigaodengjiaoyushidaishimingyinlingdejichushang,yijiazhiyinlingzhulaobanxuegenji,yimubiaodaoxiangmingxifazhansilu,shenruwajuefazhandeneishengdongli,chaoyuechuantongdeshuliangheguimodiedai,bingtongguoqianghuajingshenzhichengheyouhuaziyuanpeizhi,xingchengyizhiliangtishengweihexin、banxueguimoyuzhiliangxiediaotuijindefazhandaolu。

扎根中国、贡献国家:内涵式发展的价值维度

xijinpingzongshujishenkezhichu,“shijieyiliudaxuedoushizaifuwuzijiguojiafazhanzhongchengzhangqilaide。”zheishiduigaodengjiaoyufazhanguilvdekexuebawo,weicujingaodengjiaoyuneihanshifazhanmingquelegenbendejiazhiquxiang。zuoweishehuijinbuhewenmingjinchengdechanwu,daxuecunzaihefazhandejiazhibixuzaifanbuguojiaheshehuifazhanzhongdeyitixian;tongshi,guojiafazhanheshehuijinbudejudaxuqiu,yeweidaxuedezhengquefazhan、chixufazhantigonglezuobiaohangxianghedongliyuanquan。

亚博电竞congshijiefanweikan,daxueyuguojiafazhandeqihechengdu,queshishiyingxiangdaxuebanxueshuipingdeguanjianyinsu。pulinsidundaxuejiujiang“weiguojiafuwu”zuoweixiaoxun。hafodaxue、jiazhouligongdaxue、mashengligongxueyuandeng,quanmiancanyulemanhadungongcheng、aboluodengyuejihua、renleijiyinzujihuadengzhongdagongcheng,zaifuwuzhongdakejizhanlvezhongchixuchanchuqianyanjianduanchengguobingxunsujueqi、baochizhangqiyoushi。sitanfudaxueyeshizaifuwuguojiazhanlvemubiaozhong,ninglianchuyuanchuangxingkexuewenti,kaichuangqianyankexueyanjiulingyu,bingchuanglikexueyuanqu,xingchengleyiliudaxueweiquyujingjifuwu、yuanquweiyiliudaxuetigongzhichengdexinmoshi。

dangqian,dangheguojiashiyezhengchuzaiyigeguanjianshiqi,gaoxiaozuoweiyuanshichuangxindezhuqudaohechuangxinrencaipeiyangdezhuzhendi,bixujianchimianxiang“sigefuwu”,yi“zhagenzhongguo,gongxianguojia”dejiazhidaoxiangyinlingbanxuezhixiao,zhudongliyongrencai、keyan、wenhuadengfangmiandeyoushi,zhanzaituidongshengchanlifazhandediyixian、zuiqianyan,weiguojiajiejuezhongdaxianshiwenti、lilunwenti、kejiwentifuwu。

yaojianshouzheiyijiazhijichu,bixushizhongjianchidangdelingdao,buduanshenhuadangjianhesixiangzhengzhigongzuo,quebaozhengquebanxuezhengzhifangxiang。xijinpingzongshujiqiangdiao,“banhaowoguogaodengjiaoyu,bixujianchidangdelingdao,laolaozhangwodangduigaoxiaogongzuodelingdaoquan,shigaoxiaochengweijianchidangdelingdaodejianqiangzhendi。”yaoguancheluoshizheiyibanxuefangzhen,bixujianchiyidangdezhengzhijiansheweitongling,jianchihewanshandangweilingdaoxiadexiaozhangfuzezhi,jianchidangguanbanxuefangxiang、guangaigefazhan、guanganbu、guanrencai,jiaqiangdangduibanxuezhixiaogehuanjiedequanmianlingdao。tongshi,yaojianquandangdegongzuotixi,fahuigejidangzuzhi、dangkouzhinengbumenyijiquntuanzuzhidezuoyong,quebaodangdeluxianfangzhenzhengceheguojiazhongdazhanlvexuqiunenggoujishi、youxiaodichuandaodaogaoxiao,tuidongrencaipeiyang、keyangongguandenggongzuozijueyuguojiafazhanxuyaojinmironghe。

亚博电竞zaifuwuguojiafazhandejinchengzhong,gaoxiaojiyaochongfenfahuihaorencaipeiyang、kexueyanjiu、shehuifuwu、wenhuachuanchengchuangxin、guojijiaoliuhezuodengzhineng,yeyaojinmijiehezishenbanxuetese、xuekeyoushidengyinsu,cainengbuduanzengqiangfuwuzhilianghexiaoneng。liru,yanjiuxingdaxueyaolizuxueshuqianyan,cujinxuekejiaocharonghe,chanchugengduoxinzhishi、xinsixiang、xinjishu、xinfangfa,peiyangxionghuaitianxiadebajianchuangxinxingrencai,chengweizhongyaodeyuanshichuangxinceyuandi;yingyongxingdaxueyaotongguoshenhuaxiaoqihezuo、xingyexiezuo,zhudongduijieqiye、xingyefazhandexianshixuqiu,peiyanggaosuzhideyingyongxingjishujinengxingrencai,youlizengqiangzhichishengchanfuwuyixiandenengli。

自主创新、世界一流:内涵式发展的目标维度

亚博电竞zizhuchuangxinnenglizuoweiguojiajingzhenglidehexin,shiwoguoyingduixianshiheweilaitiaozhandebibeijichu。zuoweizhongyaodechuangxinceyuandi,zaixinshidai,zhuliguojiachuangxinshuipingconggenpaodaobingpao、lingpaodelishixingfeiyue,shiguojiafazhanduidaxuezuipoqiedexianshixuqiu,yeshiwoguogaoxiaobixufenlishixiandehexinmubiao。

dangqian,shijiekejibantuzhengzaifashengshenkebianhua,woguokejishuipingzhengjiasumaixiangshijiediyifangzhen,jijiangyinglaicongliangbiandaozhibiandezhongdatupo。tongguojidaizhongguokejigongzuozhezhangqifendouyujilei,womenyijingyouledulizizhushixianyuanshichuangxindejichuhenengli。yinciwoguogaoxiaoyifangmianyaojixukuodakaifang,lingyifangmianyoubixugengjiaqiangdiaoziligengsheng,qianghuajinqujingshen、lingpaojingshen,fahuizhiduyoushi,shenruwajuezizhuchuangxindeneizaiqudongli,zaizhongguotesexueketixi、xueshutixi、huayutixi、pingjiatixijiansheshangyouxintupo。yaomiaozhunshijiekejiqianyan,jiaqiangduiguanjiangongxingjishu、qianyanyinlingjishu、xiandaigongchengjishu、dianfuxingjishudegongguanchuangxin。xiadaqilizujianjiaochaxuekequnheqiangyoulidekejigongguantuandui,jiaqiangxuekezhijianxietongchuangxin,jiaqiangduiyuanchuangxing、xitongxing、yinlingxingyanjiudezhichi。peiyangzaojiuyidapijuyouguojishuipingdezhanlvekejirencai、kejilingjunrencai、qingniankejirencaihegaoshuipingchuangxintuandui,lizhengshixianqianzhanxingjichuyanjiu、yinlingxingyuanchuangchengguodezhongdatupo。

亚博电竞yigeguojiadefazhanshuiping,jiqujueyuzirankexuefazhanshuiping,yequjueyuzhexueshehuikexuefazhanshuiping。zaizhexueshehuikexuelingyu,tongyangyaoqiangdiaozizhuchuangxin。jinruxinshidai,zhongguodegaoxiaoyijingyoutiaojian、youshili、youzixin,xingchengjuyouzijitese、fenggeheqipaide“xuepai”,goujianqizijidezhexueshehuikexuesixiangliluntixi,weiraozhongguoheshijiefazhanmianlindezhongdawenti,yiwentiweidaoxiang,dapoxuekejiexian,tichunenggoutixianzhongguolichang、zhongguozhihui、zhongguojiazhidelinian、zhuzhang、fangan。

yaoyiyiliuxueshuhanyuyiliurencai,peiyangzaojiuyidapijuyouguojishuipingdezhanlveyanjiurencai、kejilingjunrencai、renwenyishudashi、qingniankejirencaihegaoshuipingchuangxintuandui,xingchengshugelingyudexueshugaofeng,lizhengshixianqianzhanxingjichuyanjiu、yinlingxingyuanchuangchengguodezhongdatupo,yinlingguojiguoneishehuisixiangchaoliu。

“打牢基础、双轮驱动”:内涵式发展的动力维度

亚博电竞xuekejiansheshigaoxiaofazhandeyuandongli,xuekedeleixingyutedianjuedinglegaoxiaodebanxuezhilianghetese。jichuxuekeheyingyongxuekeshixueketixizhongdelianggezhuyaofenzhi,lilunzhongdezhongdawentiyuanyuxianshixuqiu,erjishushangdeguanjiantupoyezhigenyulilunchuangxin。youlejichuxuekeheyingyongxuekezhijiandexianghucujin、xiangfuxiangcheng,gaoxiaocainengbuduanzengqiangneihanshifazhandeneishengdongli。

dangjinshidai,kejijinbuyushehuifazhandehudongriyijinmi,jichuxuekeyuyingyongxuekegengjiaguanlian,xingchenglewanzhengbukefengedechuangxinliantiao。chixutuijinjichuxuekeheyingyongxuekexietongfazhan,shishijieyiliudaxuedechenggongjingyan。ruhafodaxuezuoweiwenlikedechuantongqiangxiao,yu2007nianchenglilegongchengyuyingyongkexuexueyuan,biaoshizheqizaigongkelingyudezhongdabuju。mashengligongxueyuanzuoweishijieshangjiechudegongkeqiangxiao,congshangshiji30niandaiqijiujiangliketishengzhiyugongkedetongdengdiwei,bingdanshengduoweinuojiangdezhu,haiyu1947nianchenglilerenwenheshehuikexuexueyuan。

duiyuzhongguogaoxiaoeryan,yaojiejianguojiyouyijingyan,cujinjichuxuekeyuyingyongxuekedexiediaofazhan、xianghuzhicheng,shixian“shuanglunqudong”。shijiekejijingzhengdeguankouyijingqianyidaojichuyanjiu,guojiajiandejingzhengshifenjilie。dangheguojiafeichangzhongshijichuyanjiu。zaidangdeshijiudabaogaoguanyu“jiakuaijianshechuangxinxingguojia”delunshuzhong,jiuchuxianlesanchu“jichuyanjiu”。guojiaduijichuyanjiujingfeidetourucong2011niande411.8yiyuanzengzhangdao2018niande1118yiyuan,nianjunzengzhang15.3%。2018nian,guowuyuanchutaile《guanyuquanmianjiaqiangjichukexueyanjiuderuoganyijian》bingyoukejibudengwubuweilianhezhidinggongzuofangan,duijiaqiangjichuyanjiutigongleyoulidezhengcehezhidubaozhang。

zhongguogaoxiaoyaojingenguojiakeyanzhengcedaoxiang,congziyuantouru、zizhujizhi、wenhuafenweihezhengcecuoshidengfangmian,jixubaochiduijichuxueke、jichuyanjiudezhichilidu,qianghuakuanrongziyou、gulichuangxindexueshufenwei,gengjiatixiangulimiaozhunzhongdaxueshuwentiqianyanheziyoutansuodedaoxiang,guliguanzhujianjiede、zhangyuande、yinxingdejiazhi,weiyunyukexueqianyandexintupoyingzaolianghaoxueshushengtai,shidejichuxuekedeyoushiweixindexuekezengzhangdiandefazhantigongqiangdazhicheng。tongshi,gaoxiaoyebixujiakuaililunyanjiudeyingyongyanshen,jiangdaxuedejiazhitixianzaifuwushehuixianshixuyao、tuidongjiejuezhongdashijiwentishang。yaodalijiaqiang“xingongke、xinyike、xinnongke、xinwenke”dengjianshe,jinyibugaigekeyanguanli、zuzhiyupingjiamoshi,jiadatuanduizhenghe、xuekeronghe、ziyuanjijudelidu,chanchugengduojuyouzhijiejingjishehuixiaoyi、juyouliganjianyingxiaoguodeyingyongxingkejihewenhuachengguo。

yaotuidongjichuxuekeyuyingyongxuekedexiediaofazhan,gaoxiao、tebieshigaoshuipingdaxuehaiyaobacanyuguojiadakexuegongchengjianshezuoweizhongyaotujing。dakexuesheshishixiandaiqianyankexueyanjiuqudezhongyaotupodebiyaotiaojian,youqishi20shijizhongyeyilai,henduokexuelingyudechuangxinfazhan,doulibukaidakexuesheshidezhicheng。zaimeiguo,xuduodingjiandaxuedouchengdanlelianbangzhengfuzhongdashiyanshidejiansheheyunxing,rumashengligongxueyuandefusheshiyanshi、jiazhoubokelidaxuedelaolunsishiyanshi、zhijiagedaxuedeyejinshiyanshi、sitanfudaxuedeguojiajiasuqishiyanshideng,zheixiebujinchengweidaxuequdetupoxingchengguodezhongyaopingtai,yeweiguojiaguanjiankejifazhantigonglechixudongli。woguodegaoshuipingdaxueyaojijichengdanguojiashiyanshi、guojiakexuezhongxin、guojiajizhikudengzhongyaopingtaijianshe,dazaojuyouguojixianjinshuipingdekeyanjichusheshitixi,weicujinjichuyanjiuheyingyongyanjiuderonghefazhantigongguanjianpingtai。

“有机增长、动态平衡”:内涵式发展的路径维度

亚博电竞zouneihanshifazhandaolu,shouxianyaozuodaowenkongguimo。danneihanfazhanbingbushiwanquanbucunzaiguimozengzhang。yifangmian,zhongguogaoxiaoyushijieyiliudaxuezaidingjianrencai、keyanchanchu、ziyuanguimodengzhibiaoshanghaicunzaiyidingchaju,haiyouzhuigankongjian;lingyifangmian,bizhaorenkouguimohefazhanjieduan,yufadaguojiaxiangbi,zhongguomuqiandeyouzhigaodengjiaoyuziyuanhaixiangdangxique。suoyi,weilaiyigeshiqi,zhongguogaoxiaodeguimorengran、yexuyaobaochizengzhang。

zheizhongzengzhangbutongyuchuantonglujingzhongdeguimokuodaheshuliangzengjia,ershishidude、youjide。suoweishidu,jiguimozengzhangyaoyuziyuandechengshoulixiangpipei,bunengbugushijidiyiweizuojiafa,bunengdingpoziyuanyueshuhechengzaibianjie,guofentouzhixuexiaoweilaidefazhan。biru,banxueguimobixuyaokaolvkongjianchengzai、jiaoshililiang、shehuixuqiudengyueshutiaojian,xinzengxuekebixuyaokaolvzhangyuanqianjingyijiziyuanbaozhangdechixuxingdeng。suoweiyouji,jiushixindezengzhangbixukaolvyucunliangdeguanxi,shicunliangdeshengzhangyanshen、tuozhankuayue,yaoyucunliangzhijianxingcheng“huaxuefanying”,cujincunliangdezhiliangtisheng。ruxuekebujuyaokaolvxuexiaodexuekelishichuantong、xuekeyoushi,bunengmangmuzhuizhuredian、suiyibuju,gengbunengzhongfujianshe。

亚博电竞“shidu”“youji”debenzhijiushichongfenrenshiziyuandexiquexing,tongguokexuepeizhi,shixianmeiyifenziyuanchanchuxiaoyizuidahua。zheizhongpeizhibushijingtaide,ershiyaotongguozaijiegouheshijianweidushangdedongtaipinghenglaishixian。zaijiegouweidushang,yaochongfenrenshidao“ruhezengzhang”bi“zengzhangduoshao”gengzhongyao,zuodaoyoujinyouchu、yousuoweiyousuobuwei,zaikongzhiguimodetongshi,buduanyouhuajiegou,tongguojubuxijiedeyouhuahediedai,qudongzhengtizhiliangdeshengji。zaishijianweidushang,bunengzhiguanzhuyanxiaxiaoyixishengzhangyuanfazhan,zaishejiweilaidezengliangshi,bixujinxingyangedeguihualunzheng,weiweilaiyuliuziyuanhekongjian,shixiandangqianyuweilaigegejieduandeyouxuyouhua。

潜心治学、追求卓越:内涵式发展的精神维度

亚博电竞congshijiegaodengjiaoyufazhanshikan,quelixianjindedaxuejingshen、banxuelinian,shiyisuodaxuejueqidebibeiqianti。yasibeiersicengshuo:“zhongxinquelidaxuedeguannianshishouyaoderenwu。”bolindaxuebeichengweixiandaidaxuedekaiduan,erdiandingqilishidiweidezhengshiqijianchixueshuziyou、cujinjiaoxueyukeyanxiangjiehededutedaxuejingshen。hafodaxuezaoqifazhanjiaoweihuanman,zhidaonanbeizhanzhenghou,suizhemeiguodaxuehuayundongdetuijin,hafodaxuetongguoqiangdiao“fuwu”jingshenzhongsubanxuelinian,peiyangyouliyugongzhongliyiderencai,zhujiankaiqilezouxiangshijieyiliudejincheng。

dangqian,conggerenshouru、yingjianzhuangbeidengfangmian,zhongguodeyanjiuxinggaoxiaoheguowaixiangbi,chajuyijingdadasuoxiao,shenzhiyijinghaobuxunse,zheigeshihoubidejiushimaitoukugandefendoujingshen。shijieyiliudaxuexuyaolishidejidian。jindaiyilai,zaishijiegaodengjiaoyudewutaishang,zhongguogaoxiaoshihoufazhe、zhuisuizhe,erlijingyibaiduoniandejidian,zaiguojiazongheshilideyoulizhichixia,zhongguogaoxiaojubeilechengweitongbuzhe,shenzhiyoukeneng、youtiaojianchengweiyinlingzhedelishijiyu。zaixinshidai,nengbunengbawojiyu、shixianganchao,jiushiyaokaoshulixianjindebanxuelinian,zhenxiheshouhuwomendejingshenjiayuan,hongyangqianxinzhixue、zhuiqiuzhuoyuededaxuejingshen,yiwenhua“ruanshili”tishengbanxue“yingzhiliang”。

yaoshixianneihanshifazhan,jiubixuzunxunxueshuguilv,fayangqianxinzhixuedekexuejingshen,baoyouyifenjingqi。yinci,zhongguogaoxiaoyaobajinglifangzaiguangenben、guanzhangyuandejichuxinggongzuoshang,shizhongbaochiqiangdadingli,bugenfeng、bumangcong,queliqianxinxuewen、zhenlizhishangdejingshenzhuiqiuhezhixuehuanjing。

zaiwoguozheigeshijieshangzuidadefazhanzhongguojia,chuangjianshijieyiliudaxueshiqianwugurendehongweishiye,yeshishizhibuyidebaofuhezhixiang,renzhongerdaoyuan。zhiyoushulizhuiqiuzhuoyuedejingshen,zhongguogaoxiaocainengzaifazhanzhongbuduanmaixiangxindelichengbei。makesizhichu,“zaikexueshangmeiyoupingtandedadao,zhiyoubuweilaokuyanzhedouqiaoshanlupandengderen,caiyouxiwangdadaoguanghuidedingdian。”weidadexueshutupo,conglaibushuyuguanwangzhe、shouchengzhe,zhiyouxionghuailingyunzhizhi、hanyanggaoyuanzhixin,cainengrangxueshuzhihuazaiyunduanzhanfang,rangzhihuizhiguangzaidingfengshanyao。zaixinshidai,zhongguogaoxiaobixuquelizhuiqiuzhuoyuedejiazhiquxiangheyinlingshidaidefenjinjingshen,yindaoshishengjiangbuxiepandeng、yongpangaofengzuoweijingshenxintiao,tuidongxuexiaofazhangengjuneihan、gengyouhexinjingzhengli。

“多元支撑、强化保障”:内涵式发展的资源维度

亚博电竞ziyuanshigaoxiaofazhandebiyaobaozhang,ziyuanjiqunenglishidaxuezuizhongyaodehexinjingzhenglizhiyi。guoqu20duonianli,zaiguojiaheshehuigejiededalizhichixia,zhongguogaoxiaodebanxuetiaojianyoulexianzhugaishan,banxuejingfeichixuzengzhang。danmianduijianshegaodengjiaoyuqiangguohe“shuangyiliu”jianshederenwu,yuweijushijieqianliededingjiandaxuexiangbi,womenzaiziyuandejiqunengli,tebieshiziyuanguimo、tourudechixuxingdengfangmianhaiyouchaju。

zaiziyuanguimoshang,woguogaoxiaozaiziyuanzongliangherenjunshuipingrengyouyidingchaju。biru,2018nianhafodaxuedeyunyingshouruwei52yimeiyuan、sitanfudaxuewei68yimeiyuan,ertongqi,yabodianjingdeshouruwei17.2yimeiyuan,qinghuadaxuewei28.5yimeiyuan,jiazhihafohesitanfudebanxueguimoyuanbibeidaheqinghuaxiao,renjunshuipingshangdechajugengda。

亚博电竞zaiziyuantourudechixuxingshang,xuduoshijieyiliudaxuedouyoujiaoqiangdeziyuanyunyingnengli,ziyuandezijixing、caiwudewenjianxingyaoqiangyuzhongguogaoxiao。ruhafodaxue、sitanfudaxuedenggaoxiaoziwojingyinghuodedezijinzhanquanbushouruqichengyishang,junyoushuepangdadejuanzengjijin,touzishouyiwending。erzhongguogaoxiaodeshouruzhongcaizhengbokuanjiejin50%,shizuizhuyaozuiwendingdejingfeilaiyuan,qitashourudaduoyeyuguojiazhijiehuojianjietouruxiangguan,juanzengjijinchoucuogongzuohaichuyuqibujieduan,wulunshijijinguimohaishiduixuexiaocaiwudegongxianshangdouyushijiedingjiangaoxiaoxiangchashenyuan。

dangqian,shouxinguanyiqingdechongji,shijiejingjiyoukenengxianrushuaitui,zhongguojingjixiaxingdeyaliyefeichangda。yucitongshi,zai“shuangyiliu”jianshedeguanjianqi、jianshegaodengjiaoyuqiangguodegongjianqi,zhongguogaoxiaoduigezhongziyuantebieshizijindexuqiulianghenda,yinciyaoqianghuagaoxiaodejingzhengyishi、fuwuyishi、kaituoyishi,jiaqiangyushehuidehengxianglianxi,shenruwajuezishenderencai、keyan、wenhuadengyoushi,zengqiangjiqu、zhuanhuaziyuandenengli,duoqudaoweixuexiaofazhantigongziyuanbaozhang。tongshi,yaoluoshizhongyang“guojinrizi”deyaoqiu,qinjianbanxue、lixingjieyue、jianjuefanduipuzhanglangfei。yidingyaobahaogangyongzaidaorenshang,shizhongjujiaoxuexiaozhuzezhuye,miaozhunzhongdazhanlvefazhanfangxiangchixuyongli,buduantishengxiqueziyuandepeizhixiaolv。

亚博电竞【zuozheqiushuiping:yabodianjingdangweishuji、xiaowuweiyuanhuizhuren】

原文链接:《中国高等教育》2020年第19期

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